We all know that the uterus is the female pelvic organ that provides support to fetal development. When cancer affects the lining of the uterus (endometrium), then it is referred to as uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer might be detected early as it leads to abnormal vaginal bleeding. Uterine cancer hospital can help the patients in detecting the condition quite early.
Uterine cancer prognosis may be done by watching out for symptoms and examining the patient’s body. Uterine cancer symptoms are as follows-
- Vaginal bleeding, even after the menopause
- Bleeding between periods
- Pain in the pelvic area
Medical science has not been able to pinpoint the exact reason for uterus cancer. As is the case with all types of cancer, changes or mutations in the DNA of cells in the endometrium trigger the condition. According to the best dr for uterine cancer, the mutation causes uncontrollable and abnormal growth of cells that don’t die out with time. The resultant mass proves fatal to the body.
Tests and Diagnosis
There are a variety of tests which will help in diagnosing the presence of uterine cancer. Uterine cancer treatment cost will comprise the costs of the tests as well.
Pap test is not able to show endometrial cancer as the growth begins inside the uterus. As a result, a part of endometrial tissue is extracted and analysed under a microscope. After this procedure any of the following diagnosis methods may be used:
Endometrial Biopsy: It comprises the removal of tissue from the endometrium through the insertion of a thin, flexible tube into the uterus through the cervix. The tube gently scrapes a small portion of the tissue which is viewed by a pathologist for the presence of cancer.
Dilatation and curettage: It comprises of insertion of a curette into the uterus after dilating it. The tissue is removed by the curette and sent to be examined under a microscope.
Hysteroscopy: It is a procedure that looks inside the uterus for the presence of abnormal areas. The instrument is inserted through the vagina and uses the camera fitted at one end to view the inner layers of the uterus. If required, the tissue samples may be removed, for examination for signs of cancer.
Following tests may also be used to diagnose endometrial cancer –
Physical exam and history: The body is checked for the presence of lumps or any unusual symptoms. General health and signs of any disease are also taken into consideration. A history of the patient’s health is also taken into account.
Transvaginal ultrasound exam: It is a procedure that examines the vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus, and bladder using an ultrasound transducer or probe which is inserted into the vagina to create an image of the internal tissues.
Stage I: In this stage, the cancer is limited to the uterus only.
Stage II: This stage signifies that cancer has spread to the cervix.
Stage III: If cancer that has spread to the vagina, lymph nodes and ovaries, then the cancer is considered to be at stage 3.
Stage IV: If cancer has spread to the rectum, urinary bladder, or organs far from the uterus, like lungs or bones, then it is considered to be in the fourth stage.
Usually, 70 per cent of the cases are diagnosed in the early stages, while 20 per cent of cases are diagnosed after the metastasis of cancer to nearby organs and lymph nodes. The 10 per cent share is taken by people who get diagnosed very late when the metastasis of cancer has reached distant parts of the body.
Five types of standard treatment are used:
At our clinic, we provide the best uterine cancer doctors. The best treatment for uterine cancer can be worked out by the doctor depending upon the patient’s condition and other crucial factors. The following methods constitute the 5 topmost treatment strategies-
Surgery is the most common option for treating endometrial cancer. Many types of uterine cancer surgery procedures may be used:
Total hysterectomy: In this surgery, the uterus and cervix are removed.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: when both the ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed, then it is known as Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
Radical hysterectomy: In this surgery, a part of the vagina is removed along with the uterus, and cervix. It may also include the removal of fallopian tubes, or nearby lymph nodes.
Lymph node dissection: It is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of lymph nodes from the pelvic area and checking the tissue sample under a microscope for the presence of cancer.
Post-surgery, radiation therapy or hormone treatment may be given to patients to reduce the risk of cancer coming back.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation in the external or internal form to kill cancer cells.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. The administration of the drugs may be done by the mouth or injected into the body through the veins.
Hormone therapy uses the removal of hormones or rendering them inactive to stop the growth of cancer cells.
As the name specifies, targeted therapy targets specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Endometrial cancer can be treated by Monoclonal antibodies, mTOR inhibitors, and signal transduction target therapies.